YorkieTalk.com Forums - Yorkshire Terrier Community


Welcome to the YorkieTalk.com Forums Community - the community for Yorkshire Terriers.

You are currently viewing our boards as a guest which gives you limited access to view most discussions and access our other features. By joining our free community you will have access to post topics, communicate privately with other members (PM), respond to polls, upload content and access many other special features. You will be able to chat with over 35,000 YorkieTalk members, read over 2,000,000 posted discussions, and view more than 15,000 Yorkie photos in the YorkieTalk Photo Gallery after you register. We would love to have you as a member!

Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our community today!

If you have any problems with the registration process or your account login, please click here to contact us.

Go Back   YorkieTalk.com Forums - Yorkshire Terrier Community > YorkieTalk > Yorkie Health & Diet
Register Blogs FAQ Calendar JavaChat Mark Forums Read

Reply
 
LinkBack Thread Tools
Old 02-01-2018, 09:09 PM   #1
Resident Yorkie Nut Donating YT 20K Club Member
 
ladyjane's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2006
Location: Texas
Posts: 26,137
Default Raw Chicken Linked to Paralysis in Dogs

Just saw this tonight....

https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/artic...alysis-in-dogs
__________________
ladyjane is offline   Reply With Quote
Welcome Guest!
Not Registered?

Join today and remove this ad!

Old 02-02-2018, 12:17 AM   #2
kjc
I♥PeekTinkySaph&Finny
Donating Member
 
kjc's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2009
Location: Baltimore, Maryland
Posts: 18,506
Default

Wow...thanks for that info.
__________________
Kat PeekABooTinkerbellSapphire & Infinity
kjc is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-02-2018, 05:11 AM   #3
YT 3000 Club Member
 
pstinard's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Urbana, IL USA
Posts: 3,622
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by ladyjane View Post
I looked at the research article and it's pretty grim. Although the paralysis is rare, 96% of the paralyzed dogs were fed raw chicken. 26% of the nonparalyzed control group were fed raw chicken. The paralysis is associated with a bacterium present in raw chicken called Campylobacter. It's a fairly common bacterium. Evidently, it triggers the dog's immune system to attack the dog's own nerve tissue. More food for thought in the raw feeding debate. I'll read the article in greater detail later...
__________________
Doggy Daddy to Bella
pstinard is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-02-2018, 05:23 AM   #4
Resident Yorkie Nut Donating YT 20K Club Member
 
ladyjane's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2006
Location: Texas
Posts: 26,137
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by pstinard View Post
I looked at the research article and it's pretty grim. Although the paralysis is rare, 96% of the paralyzed dogs were fed raw chicken. 26% of the nonparalyzed control group were fed raw chicken. The paralysis is associated with a bacterium present in raw chicken called Campylobacter. It's a fairly common bacterium. Evidently, it triggers the dog's immune system to attack the dog's own nerve tissue. More food for thought in the raw feeding debate. I'll read the article in greater detail later...
I don't often share things like this, but I trust Skep Vet and when I read it, it really did sound very credible.
Thanks, Phil...always appreciate your reviews.
BTW: I haven't had a chance to read the things you sent...just been SO busy lately
__________________
ladyjane is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-02-2018, 05:31 AM   #5
Yorkie mom of 3
Donating YT Member
 
Lovetodream88's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2008
Location: LaPlata, Md
Posts: 20,137
Default

This is one of the reasons I will never ever feed raw or recommend it. Just to dangerous in my opinion.
__________________
Taylor, Veterinary Assistant
I Callie CGC NTD, Joey CGC TKA ATD, Penny and Ollie
Taylor's doggy stuff reviews
Lovetodream88 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-02-2018, 07:15 AM   #6
YT 3000 Club Member
 
pstinard's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Urbana, IL USA
Posts: 3,622
Default

I read the research article. The type of paralysis studied, acute polyradiculoneuritis (APN), is the most commonly diagnosed generalized peripheral neuropathy in dogs worldwide, and is considered to be the canine equivalent of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. (One of my work colleagues has GBS, so I know it's not that uncommon in humans.) It's an autoimmune disease where the body's own immune system attacks the nerve cells.

APN was originally called coonhound paralysis because it was first identified in the US in hunting dogs exposed to raccoons and raccoon saliva, but it has since been found in many other dogs and in many other countries that don't have raccoons. Other than a definite association with hunting dogs exposed to raccoon saliva, little else was known about the cause of the disease, but the similarity to GBS led veterinarians to suspect similar causes in dogs, including bacterial or viral infection. Campylobacter bacterial infection is associated with 40% of the cases of GBS in humans, so the authors of this study wanted to see if there was a link between Campylobacter infection and APN in dogs.

Most Campylobacter infections in humans come from the consumption of raw or undercooked poultry. Chickens are a natural reservoir for Campylobacter, and many Australians feed their dogs raw chicken as part of their diet or as a treat, so the authors of this study included a study of the dog's diet to see if feeding raw chicken was associated with APN. BUT, they studied other factors as well, including other raw meats, vaccination, contact with birds, contact with outdoor water sources, contact with pesticides, whether the dogs scavenged for food outdoors, whether they ate poop (seriously), and demographic factors such as sex, breed size, and whether they were spayed or neutered. The results are breathtaking, but we'll get to that in a minute.

The authors conducted a study of dogs with APN coming in to their clinics, and the study was conducted at the University of Melbourne Veterinary Teaching Hospital, which is a world class institution. For each sick dog studied, they studied two healthy dogs that were matched for body size for comparison purposes. A total of 27 dogs with APN were studied, along with a control group of 47 healthy dogs. Many small breed dogs were represented, including silky terriers, but no Yorkies.

I'll present the results with odds ratios. For instance, if the odds ratio is 2, that means that a dog with APN is twice as likely to be associated with the listed factor as a healthy dog. If the odds ratio is 70, that means that a dog with APN is 70 times as likely to be associated with the listed factor as a healthy dog. (I include the example of 70, because that's one of the shocking results.) If the odds ratio is 1, that means there is no association of the listed factor with APN. If the odds ratio is less than one (0.5 for example), that means that the factor is considered protective, because the dog with APN is half as likely to be associated with the listed factor as the healthy dog.

Results:

Campylobacter infection detected within 4 days of diagnosis: 12.4

Raw chicken in diet: 70.7 (!!!)

Raw meat in diet: 40.0 (!!!)

Contact with birds: 0.98 (no significant difference)

Vaccination within the past 6 weeks: 1.98

Access to outdoor water sources: 0.51

Use of pesticides: 1.83

Tendency to scavenge food: 0.75

Tendency to scavenge feces: 0.88

Outdoor access: 0.37

Rural: 2.44
Suburban: 1.65
Urban: 1.00

Female: 1.22

Neutered: 0.50

Large breed: 2.3
Medium breed: 1.0
Small breed: 6.2

weight > 20 kg: 1.0
11 to 20 kg: 3.38
7 to 10 kg: 5.03
< 7 kg: 7.31

I'll quote some of the conclusions verbatim:

Quote:
We investigated a potential association between Campylobacter infection and APN in dogs. Other potential risk factors also were investigated, and a significant association was detected between dogs affected by APN and the consumption of raw chicken (with owners of 96% of APN cases reporting raw chicken consumption, compared to 26% of owners of control dogs). Thus, raw chicken in the diet is highly likely to increase the risk of developing APN in dogs in Australia. In addition, 48% of the dogs with APN were positive for Campylobacter infection compared with 23% in the control group. When a stringent case definition was applied (considering only cases in which the fecal sample was collected within 7 days from onset of the clinical signs), APN cases were 9.4 times more likely to have had a recent laboratory-confirmed episode of campylobacteriosis compared to control dogs (P < 0.001).
Quote:
Previous studies have shown that exposure to racoons was the most common risk factor for dogs to develop APN in North America. However, it is unclear what triggers the immune response in dogs with no history of exposure to racoon saliva. Association with protozoal infections previously has been suspected. In a retrospective study investigating potential infectious origins, it was suggested that infection with T. gondii may trigger APN in dogs, as previously reported in humans. However, in a more recent study, only 1 of 14 APN dogs was positive for T. gondii Abs. In our study, APN cases tested for N. caninum and T. gondii all were found to be negative. Moreover, CK activity was within normal limits in most dogs (18/23). The other 5 dogs had mildly increased CK activity, which was interpreted to be a consequence of prolonged recumbency rather than neuro-myopathy. Studies in people have recognized the development of GBS after vaccinations against several pathogens within 6 weeks of receiving the injection. Recent vaccination also has been reported as a potential cause of APN in a dog. Only 1 of our APN cases had a history of vaccination within 6 weeks of hospital presentation. Overall, previous vaccination was not found to be a significant risk factor of APN in our study.
Quote:
In our study, consumption of raw chicken meat was strongly associated with the occurrence of APN. Poultry is the most common source of C. jejuni infection in industrialized countries and, in retail surveys, C. jejuni is isolated relatively commonly from commercial poultry products. Therefore, contact with or consumption of raw or undercooked poultry products is an important source of exposure to Campylobacter strains associated with neurological diseases. Results from a study in New Zealand showed that food safety measures to decrease contamination of fresh poultry meat with Campylobacter spp. not only decreased incidence of campylobacteriosis but also were associated with decreased incidence of GBS. Transmission of Campylobacter may be prevented by improving sanitation, well-cooked poultry products and public health warnings about the hazards of raw chicken consumption. The presence of C. upsaliensis in commercial poultry has been reported to range from 1 to 9.7%, suggesting that chickens may be a source of emerging Campylobacter species.

A significant association was found between small breeds and APN. Based on our clinical experience, small dogs are more likely to be fed raw chicken because of the presence of small bones in the chicken which are easily eaten by these dogs rather than larger meat bones that may be fed to medium and large breed dogs. The association between breed size and APN may be explained by the hypothesis that small dogs are fed chicken necks and wings more frequently than are larger breed dogs. Genetic factors, as suggested in humans with GBS, also may be a factor in any breed differences in the incidence of APN.
Quote:
Our study clearly demonstrates that consumption of raw chicken is a risk factor for dogs in the development of APN, and we suspect that Campylobacter infection is most likely to be an immunologic trigger as described in humans with GBS.
For me, the takeaway lesson is that feeding raw chicken (odds ratio of 70) and other raw meats (odds ratio of 40) is a high risk factor for the development of APN. The risk is likely to be reduced by cooking, good sanitation, and high quality control. Small breed dogs like Yorkies are at greater risk, probably because small dogs are more likely to be fed raw chicken necks rather than larger livestock bones, but they haven't ruled out a genetic component.
__________________
Doggy Daddy to Bella
pstinard is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-02-2018, 04:05 PM   #7
Donating YT 500 Club Member
 
yorkiemini's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2010
Location: USA
Posts: 4,021
Default

Very interesting! Thanks LadyJane and Phil! Seems like we have to,always be on our toes to take care of our fur rabies.
Love Sceptvet!
__________________
. Cali , and Cali's keeper and staff, Jay
No, not a "mini" Yorkie - She loves to motor in her Mini Cooper car
yorkiemini is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-02-2018, 07:07 PM   #8
Action Jackson ♥
Donating Member
 
Britster's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Maryland
Posts: 17,495
Default

Huh, very interesting, for sure. Thanks for sharing!
__________________
~ Brit & Lights! Camera! Jackson! CGC ETD TKP ~
Britster is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-03-2018, 07:32 AM   #9
YT 3000 Club Member
 
pstinard's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Urbana, IL USA
Posts: 3,622
Default HPP processed commercial raw pet foods.

I was asked about whether the HPP (High Pressure Processing) food sterilization process used by many commercial raw food companies is effective in killing bacteria in raw chicken, so I looked into it, and the answer is yes.

Companies like Stella & Chewy and Primal Pet Foods use HPP to sterilize many of their poultry products. On their websites, they only mention testing for E. coli and Salmonella, so I had to do some more research about Campylobacter. I found a research article on the effectiveness of HPP processing on killing Campylobacter, and the results are that HPP is more effective at killing Campylobacter than other foodborne pathogens like Salmonella. Here is a link to the article's abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26172174

There are no published studies comparing the safety of feeding HPP processed commercial raw dog foods vs. home prepared raw dog foods that I know of, but if I were determined to feed raw chicken to my dog (which I'm not), I would go with an HPP processed commercial raw dog food, and I would definitely check out the company to make sure they use HPP processing first.
__________________
Doggy Daddy to Bella
pstinard is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-03-2018, 07:57 AM   #10
Resident Yorkie Nut Donating YT 20K Club Member
 
ladyjane's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2006
Location: Texas
Posts: 26,137
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by pstinard View Post
I was asked about whether the HPP (High Pressure Processing) food sterilization process used by many commercial raw food companies is effective in killing bacteria in raw chicken, so I looked into it, and the answer is yes.

Companies like Stella & Chewy and Primal Pet Foods use HPP to sterilize many of their poultry products. On their websites, they only mention testing for E. coli and Salmonella, so I had to do some more research about Campylobacter. I found a research article on the effectiveness of HPP processing on killing Campylobacter, and the results are that HPP is more effective at killing Campylobacter than other foodborne pathogens like Salmonella. Here is a link to the article's abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26172174

There are no published studies comparing the safety of feeding HPP processed commercial raw dog foods vs. home prepared raw dog foods that I know of, but if I were determined to feed raw chicken to my dog (which I'm not), I would go with an HPP processed commercial raw dog food, and I would definitely check out the company to make sure they use HPP processing first.
__________________
ladyjane is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-04-2018, 08:10 AM   #11
YorkieTalk Newbie!
 
Shatzies Poppa's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2016
Location: Troy Tex U.S.A.
Posts: 5
Default

Why would anyone feed their dogs raw food anyway. These are domesticated pets, makes no sense to feed pets raw food. Your not doing them a favor with raw food. Merrick is great dog food and is all they need to be in great health.
Shatzies Poppa is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-06-2018, 03:55 PM   #12
Yorkie Yakker
 
Furmom's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2016
Location: Sunny, Alaska
Posts: 34
Default

I'll for sure give this article a read. I don't know about raw chicken necks as a treat tho. Especially feeding raw outside.
__________________
Kashmere & Denim =
Furmom is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-07-2018, 07:32 AM   #13
Action Jackson ♥
Donating Member
 
Britster's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Location: Maryland
Posts: 17,495
Default

I have no real opinion on this to be honest as I dont Raw feed and I don’t have enough information but saw this article and thought I’d share the “rebuttal” so to speak.

Thoughts?

https://www.dogsfirst.ie/raw-chicken...lysis-in-dogs/
__________________
~ Brit & Lights! Camera! Jackson! CGC ETD TKP ~
Britster is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-07-2018, 08:27 AM   #14
YT 3000 Club Member
 
pstinard's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Urbana, IL USA
Posts: 3,622
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Britster View Post
I have no real opinion on this to be honest as I dont Raw feed and I don’t have enough information but saw this article and thought I’d share the “rebuttal” so to speak.

Thoughts?

https://www.dogsfirst.ie/raw-chicken...lysis-in-dogs/
I'll comment on a few things and go down the list in order:

"First, has anyone on here ever heard of APN?! Come on now, there are thousands of you out there feeding raw chicken, surely one of your dogs has been stricken down?!!!!"

I personally don't feed my dog raw chicken so I can't answer that question for myself, but APN is the most common type of canine paralysis in the US. Here, it often goes by the name of Coonhound Paralysis: https://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions...ound_paralysis

I don't know anyone who has an afflicted dog, but one of my work colleagues was afflicted by Guillain-Barre Syndrome, which is the human equivalent. See https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-...s/syc-20362793 . Ironically, here is a quote from the Mayo Clinic:

"Guillain-Barre syndrome may be triggered by:
Most commonly, infection with campylobacter, a type of bacteria often found in undercooked poultry"


Now moving on the rebuttal's bulleted points:

1. "Around half of dogs normally have Campylobacter in their guts." This may or may not be true--the rebuttal doesn't purport to be scientific--but the Australian study found that dogs with APN had 12.4 times the likelihood for testing positive for Campylobacter as healthy dogs.

2. "There are so many causes of APN in dogs it's ridiculous." Umm, not really. In the US, APN was originally identified in dogs that had contact with raccoons. The state of the art at the time was such that they really didn't know WHAT about the raccoons caused the APN. The Australian study makes a compelling case that Campylobacter infection increases the risk of APN by a factor of 12.4 times. That's nothing to be sneezed at. The rebuttal argues that APN has been found to be caused by various other factors, such as vaccinations and Toxoplasma gondii infections. The Australian study looked at all of these factors, and many more. I quoted the odds ratios for these factors in a previous post in this thread, but to summarize, dogs that were recently vaccinated were twice as likely to have APN, as opposed to dogs that were fed raw chicken were 70 times as likely to have APN. As for Toxoplasma gondii, here is what the Australians wrote: "In a retrospective study investigating potential infectious origins, it was suggested that infection with T. gondii may trigger APN in dogs, 31 as previously reported in humans. 32,33 However, in a more recent study, only 1 of 14 APN dogs was positive for T. gondii Abs. 7 In our study, APN cases tested for N. caninum and T. gondii all were found to be negative." I kept the reference numbers in the quote because the rebuttal cites article number 31. That's a poster presented at an ACVIM conference in Dallas, TX in 2008. A more recent study from 2013 found that only 1 of 14 dogs tested positive for Toxoplasma gondii (cited as article number 7 in the Australian paper.)

3. "Poor sample size and poorer sampling methods." Sample size could always be larger in ANY study, but the methods of the Australian group are sound, and the results were overwhelmingly statistically significant. The rebuttal goes on to whine about the University of Melbourne Veterinary Hospital being "a veterinary university hospital that is presumably cash-sponsored by the dry food industry that most staff are on the dry food bandwagon and are thus appropriately terrified of feeding their pets any real food whatsoever. Can’t see too many of these dogs being fed raw chicken anyway!!!" The rebuttal exposes its own biases with statements like this. I can't really take statements about veterinarians being "terrified of feeding their dogs any real food" seriously.

4. "Might there be another reason dogs with APN shed Campylobacter shed in their faeces?" Perhaps, but the study ALSO found that dogs fed raw chicken were 70 times as likely to have APN as healthy dogs, and dogs fed other raw meats were 40 times as likely to have APN as healthy dogs, so there's that.

"Conclusion: Raw chicken is not linked to paralysis in dogs in any meaningful way." If by "meaningful" you mean scientific research conducted at a world class veterinary school and subjected to rigorous peer review, then you're quite wrong, my friend. All I can say is...

__________________
Doggy Daddy to Bella
pstinard is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-07-2018, 08:38 AM   #15
YT 3000 Club Member
 
pstinard's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2013
Location: Urbana, IL USA
Posts: 3,622
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Britster View Post
I have no real opinion on this to be honest as I dont Raw feed and I don’t have enough information but saw this article and thought I’d share the “rebuttal” so to speak.

Thoughts?
The Skeptvet has also weighed in on the Australian study: Yet Another Study Shows the Real Dangers of Raw Diets for Dogs | The SkeptVet
__________________
Doggy Daddy to Bella
pstinard is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Bookmarks



Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is Off
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are Off




Google
 

SHOP NOW: Amazon :: eBay :: Buy.com :: Newegg :: PetStore :: Petco :: PetSmart


All times are GMT -8. The time now is 09:07 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.9
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
Copyright ©2003 - 2018 YorkieTalk.com
Privacy Policy - Terms of Use

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159