YorkieTalk.com Forums - Yorkshire Terrier Community


Welcome to the YorkieTalk.com Forums Community - the community for Yorkshire Terriers.

You are currently viewing our boards as a guest which gives you limited access to view most discussions and access our other features. By joining our free community you will have access to post topics, communicate privately with other members (PM), respond to polls, upload content and access many other special features. You will be able to chat with over 35,000 YorkieTalk members, read over 2,000,000 posted discussions, and view more than 15,000 Yorkie photos in the YorkieTalk Photo Gallery after you register. We would love to have you as a member!

Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please, join our community today!

If you have any problems with the registration process or your account login, please click here to contact us.

Go Back   YorkieTalk.com Forums - Yorkshire Terrier Community > Yorkie News & Site Announcements
Register Blogs FAQ Calendar JavaChat Mark Forums Read

Reply
 
LinkBack Thread Tools
Old 03-25-2010, 06:05 PM   #1
No Longer a Member
 
Breezeaway's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2005
Location: Wildcat Country(KY)
Posts: 2,114
Blog Entries: 26
Default [News] Dogs suffer cancer after ID chipping {graphic surgery picture}

WND Exclusive
Dogs suffer cancer after ID chipping
'I saw it growing every day, and I could see it taking his life'
Posted: March 24, 2010
8:22 pm Eastern

By Chelsea Schilling
© 2010 WorldNetDaily


Seamus (Copyright Howard Gillis 2010. All rights reserved.)

Do implanted microchips cause cancer in dogs and cats?

That's the question owners are asking after highly aggressive tumors developed around the microchip implants of two dogs, killing one and leaving the other terminally ill.

The owners – and pathology and autopsy reports – suggest a link between the chips and formation of fast-growing cancers.

'I could see it taking his life'

A 5-year-old bullmastiff named Seamus died last month after developing a hemangio-sarcoma – a malignant form of cancer that can kill even humans in three to six months, explains privacy expert, syndicated radio host and best-selling author Dr. Katherine Albrecht.

Albrecht, an outspoken opponent of implantable microchips, has been contacted by pet owners after their animals experienced what they believe to be side effects from the procedure.

According to a pathology report, Seamus' tumor appeared between his shoulder blades last year, and by September a "large mass" had grown with the potential to spread to his lungs, liver and spleen.

Seamus underwent emergency surgery, and doctors extracted a 4-pound, 3-ounce tumor from the dog. They used four drains to remove fluid from the area in which the tumor had developed. The veterinarian informed the dog's owner, Howard Gillis, that there had been two microchips embedded in Seamus – one presumably inserted by the dog's breeder when Seamus was only 9 months old. The chips were both located in and around the tumor.

In just three months, the cancer returned. Seamus, a once energetic dog, struggled to walk.

Seamus "was 150 pounds of heart," Howard Gillis, the dog's owner, said in a recent interview. "He wanted to live."

Read the whole story: Get "Spychips: How Major Corporations and Government plan to Track your every Move"

Gillis explained that he "got the microchip because I didn't want him stolen. I thought I was doing right. There were never any warnings about what a microchip could do, but I saw it first-hand. That cancer was something I could see growing every day, and I could see it taking his life … It just ate him up."

To end the suffering, Seamus was put to sleep in February.

Microchip embedded inside tumor


Scotty (Copyright Linda Hawkins 2010. All rights reserved.))

Albrecht told the story of another dog, a 5-year-old Yorkshire terrier named Scotty that was diagnosed with cancer in Memphis, Tenn. Scotty developed a tumor between his shoulder blades, in the same location where the microchip had been implanted. The tumor the size of a small balloon – described as malignant lymphoma – was removed. Scotty's microchip was embedded inside the tumor.

Scotty was given only a year to live. His owner, Linda Hawkins, said the veterinarian was skeptical that a chip implant could cause cancer.

In Scotty's December pathology report, the doctor wrote: "I was previously suspicious of a prior unrelated injection site reaction" beneath the tumor. "However, it is possible that this inflammation is associated with other foreign debris, possibly from the microchip."

The doctor said the chip was coated with a translucent material to keep the microchips from moving around the body. "This coating could be the material inciting the inflammatory response," he wrote.

A national pet recovery and identification network, asked a vet to review the pathology report, according to Hawkins. The company reported that the chip was not the cause of the tumor. However, Hawkins said the company sent her a $300 check to pay for medical expenses.

"I find it hard to believe that a company will just give away $300 to somebody who calls in, unless there is something bad going on," Hawkins said.

Hawkins reported spending $4,000 on medical treatment for Scotty since December.


Scotty's scar following surgery to remove tumor (Copyright Linda Hawkins 2010. All rights reserved.)

"Scotty is just a baby," she said. "He won't live the 15 years he's supposed to … I did something I thought a responsible pet owner should – microchip your pet – and to think that it killed him … It just breaks your heart."

Albrecht cited other reports of animals who suffered adverse reactions following implantation of microchips. Two other dogs experienced malignant tumors.

A French bulldog named Lιon developed a lump at the microchip site only eight months after implantation. A biopsy indicated that Lιon had a fibrosarcoma, an aggressive form of cancer.

As WND reported just last year, a Chihuahua named Charlie Brown experienced another outcome from the chipping procedure. He bled to death.

"I wasn't in favor of getting Charlie chipped, but it was the law," said Lori Ginsberg, the Chihuahua's owner, citing an ordinance that requires all dogs over the age of four months in unincorporated Los Angeles County be microchipped. Dog owners who refuse to comply face a $250 fine for the first offense and up to six months in jail and $1,000 fine for continued non-compliance.

"This technology is supposedly so great until it's your animal that dies," she said. "I can't believe Charlie is gone."

Dogs suffer cancer after ID chipping
Attached Images
File Type: jpg Scotty.jpg (71.4 KB, 137 views)
File Type: jpg Scottyscar.jpg (95.8 KB, 163 views)
Breezeaway is offline   Reply With Quote
Welcome Guest!
Not Registered?

Join today and remove this ad!

WidgetBucks - Trend Watch - WidgetBucks.com
Old 03-26-2010, 12:04 AM   #2
Senior Yorkie Talker
 
TaylorWoods's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2010
Location: Durban, South Africa
Posts: 238
Blog Entries: 3
Confused I am very disturbed by this article :(

I have just found out that from September 2010 it is compulsory for breeders to chip their puppies and registered dogs in South Africa. This is something I will have to research and speak to KUSA about too because I am not sure of all the facts yet. But, I was supposed to have my female when she had her last injections but the vet told me to wait until she's a little bit bigger so I was planning on having her done this month but now I am terrified

Of course like all people on this site, my Yorkie is my whole world and I would find in difficult to forgive myself for causing something so terrible.

When she had her last 2 injections she came up with a lump between her shoulder blades. The first time I took her back to the vet to have an eye infection treated and he looked at the lump and said he wasn't worried about it and it was a type of hemotoma from the injection. It disappeared after about 2 weeks. When she had her final injection though it reappeared and is still there since January. I wasn't worried about it and it has gotten smaller but this morning this article just really concerned me. If that is how she reacts to her rabies injection and innoculations then how will she react to her microchip and will I be responsible for possibly causing her cancer?

Thanks for your article - I think I will discuss this with my local vet and do some private research as well.
__________________
Kristin, Taylor & Trigger
TaylorWoods is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 04:37 AM   #3
Donating YT 500 Club Member
 
jencar98's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2006
Location: Oklahoma
Posts: 6,435
Blog Entries: 3
Default

Poor dogs and their owners.

I've had concerns and posted about chipping in the past, only to have many disagree with me. I so hope these cancers are isolated incidents!
__________________
~Ruby, Reno, Razz, & Jack~
jencar98 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 05:02 AM   #4
Senior Yorkie Talker
 
TaylorWoods's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2010
Location: Durban, South Africa
Posts: 238
Blog Entries: 3
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by jencar98 View Post
Poor dogs and their owners.

I've had concerns and posted about chipping in the past, only to have many disagree with me. I so hope these cancers are isolated incidents!
I think it's going to be a mixed view from most people. Taylor is booked to have hers done next week like I said in my other post, it will be a South African rule for all registered breeders to chip their puppies before registering them.

I have not been able to find any other articles relating to this subject but I am rather worried about it...I also hope it's isolated cases and never happens to me
__________________
Kristin, Taylor & Trigger
TaylorWoods is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 12:26 PM   #5
YT 500 Club Member
 
bamawife's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2010
Location: Alabama
Posts: 592
Default

Raley was chipped last week, 2 days before he turned 15 weeks old. When he had his shots last month my vet told me she would prefer for him to be a little bigger. So, he was big enough for her at this last appt. I know several people who have their pets chipped and not a one of them mentioned having any concern or problem when I approached them with questions. I feel as you all do that hopefully these are isolated instances. It is very sad to think that those of us who believe in chipping could be harming our babies and not realize it!
bamawife is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 12:29 PM   #6
Donating YT 1000 Club Member
 
Sweet Apple's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2009
Location: Houston, Texas USA
Posts: 2,473
Default

After doing lots of research, I opted out of microchipping for my guys, and I'm glad I did...I think I'd be getting an attorney, if my country, breeder, or government asked me to implant something in my dog that is potentially dangerous...I mean, the facts speak for themself!
Sweet Apple is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 12:41 PM   #7
No Longer A Member
 
ARCHIE's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2005
Location: NEW YORK
Posts: 16,218
Animal Smiley 049

Quote:
Originally Posted by jencar98 View Post
Poor dogs and their owners.

I've had concerns and posted about chipping in the past, only to have many disagree with me. I so hope these cancers are isolated incidents!

Me too.
ARCHIE is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 01:18 PM   #8
I ♥ Joey & Ralphie!
Donating Member
 
Nancy1999's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2006
Location: Arizona
Posts: 25,394
Blog Entries: 2
Default

You going to read more and more propaganda put out about microchips because of state laws wanting it to become mandatory. Commercial breeders are fighting it big time; they do not want dogs traced back to them. Dog-fighting enthusiasts are also concerned about mandatory microchiping, right now they can just deny the badly beaten dog is theirs.

This makes me so angry on so many levels. Pet owners don't always know whom to believe, and not everyone is familiar with the difference in scientific studies. Many people see all scientific studies as being equal, however, studies are far from equal, and a the design of the study is very important in showing impartiality.
Here's one of the newest studies, done by real scientists.
Quote:
Conclusions
The use of microchips in pets is a safe, effective, and
durable means of identification that has been used
globally in millions of animals for nearly 2 decades. To
date, the entire global database of sarcoma development
in microchipped dogs is limited to a single case report
involving 1 animal.
Furthermore, though low incidences
of vaccine-related sarcoma development have been
documented in cats (even more rare in dogs), microchip associated
sarcoma development has never been
reported in felines. In the context of millions of microchip
implantations spread over many years, this near absence
of adverse event documentation comprises an impressive
and expansive safety record. Therefore, the benefits of
microchip implantation with regard to the safety and
welfare of pets should they become lost or separated
from their owner have proven to be infinitely greater than
the remote and unsubstantiated risk of tumor development
associated with microchip implantation. http://www.digitalangel.com/document...%2002%2007.pdf
Quote:
Any foreign material injected carries some risks. However, the risks of are extremely minimal compared to the risk of your pet becoming lost. Veterinarians have been implanting microchips in animals for years, and the process has been proven to be very safe. The chip is made out of an inert, biocompatible substance, which means it won’t cause an allergic reaction in your furry friend, and it won’t degenerate over time. The first versions of the microchip would sometimes migrate from where they were injected, but manufacturers now design the chips with antimigrating properties. When they’re implanted properly, today’s chips won’t migrate. Once they’re in place, they won’t move around or get near any delicate tissues or organs. You can help make sure the microchip heals securely by keeping your pet calm and quiet for the 24 hours following injection. Because the microchip is placed just under the skin and not internally, microchip reading is completely safe as well. Microchipping
I hope Yorkietalkerswill not be a part of spreading rumors concerning the safety of microchips, literally millions of dogs have been microchiped, and only one case has documented as tumor involvement. I'm not familiar with the case cited above, but I don't think we should automatically believe it to be true, until independent resources confirm it. Even then, it's would be only 2 dogs out of millions, and please don't forget that COMERCIAL BREEDERS ARE FIGHTING THIS LEGISTLATION, and want to get pet owners outraged and scared, so that the legislation doesn't pass. Don't fall for the trap!
__________________

Last edited by Nancy1999; 03-26-2010 at 01:20 PM.
Nancy1999 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 01:23 PM   #9
YT 500 Club Member
 
bamawife's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2010
Location: Alabama
Posts: 592
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nancy1999 View Post
You going to read more and more propaganda put out about microchips because of state laws wanting it to become mandatory. Commercial breeders are fighting it big time; they do not want dogs traced back to them. Dog-fighting enthusiasts are also concerned about mandatory microchiping, right now they can just deny the badly beaten dog is theirs.

This makes me so angry on so many levels. Pet owners don't always know whom to believe, and not everyone is familiar with the difference in scientific studies. Many people see all scientific studies as being equal, however, studies are far from equal, and a the design of the study is very important in showing impartiality.
Here's one of the newest studies, done by real scientists.




I hope Yorkietalkerswill not be a part of spreading rumors concerning the safety of microchips, literally millions of dogs have been microchiped, and only one case has documented as tumor involvement. I'm not familiar with the case cited above, but I don't think we should automatically believe it to be true, until independent resources confirm it. Even then, it's would be only 2 dogs out of millions, and please don't forget that COMERCIAL BREEDERS ARE FIGHTING THIS LEGISTLATION, and want to get pet owners outraged and scared, so that the legislation doesn't pass. Don't fall for the trap!
Thank you for the info. Many, many of my military friends have their animals chipped as well as my civilian friends....they were nothing but supportive of my decision to have Raley chipped. I will support chipping to anyone who asks my advice.
bamawife is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 04:19 PM   #10
No Longer a Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2009
Location: Maryland
Posts: 2,410
Default

Breezeaway,

..... thanks for posting. Personally, I am also very apprehensive about the legalized mandating of universal RFID microchipping, due not only to the articles that I have read in Veterinary Pathology, but to the clinical trials I have been privy to.

I do not believe in putting any kind of RFID technology in any species.

However, this is not an opinion that some YT members want to hear, much less be vocalized. It appears that for some topics, this one included, there is only one acceptable belief, chiseled into the YT indoctrinated.
lil fu fu girl is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-26-2010, 10:19 PM   #11
Donating YT 2000 Club Member
 
DvlshAngel985's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2008
Location: Los Angeles, California, USA
Posts: 12,579
Default

I find this article interesting, along with the facts that Nancy posted. My belief is that it is much much easier to conduct studies on animals (as in animal products for animals) and much easier to collect information. Given that, the information presented can give a clearer idea of what is going on with chips, or what not, and we as loving pet owners can make a better decision on what is right for our babies. As far as I know, this is the first case I have ever heard of that started with a chip, and ended up with a pup having cancer. In my eyes, so far this is the result: Millions of dogs are chipped, and only one ended up with cancer. With these results the risk of losing my pup outweighs the risk of cancer, but my opinion could change if I had the right information. So, lil fu fu girl, if there is something you know, or can post, please do. I'd love to read more information about it.
__________________
Kaji, 's Uni, the blond leggy SUPERMODEL! Missy, his kissy friend
Follow Kaji on Instagram! @kaji_gram

Last edited by DvlshAngel985; 03-26-2010 at 10:20 PM.
DvlshAngel985 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-27-2010, 01:56 AM   #12
Missing Yoshi Everyday!
Donating Member
 
xxmxaxrxyxx's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2007
Location: Wichita, KS
Posts: 15,110
Blog Entries: 3
Default

wow that is scary...all of mine are microchip...now i am scared..
__________________
Yoshi Mei Ling Ting Ting Ting Ki Sun Hye Yukio Kioshi
xxmxaxrxyxx is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-27-2010, 07:18 AM   #13
Donating YT 500 Club Member
 
jencar98's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2006
Location: Oklahoma
Posts: 6,435
Blog Entries: 3
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nancy1999 View Post
You going to read more and more propaganda put out about microchips because of state laws wanting it to become mandatory. Commercial breeders are fighting it big time; they do not want dogs traced back to them. Dog-fighting enthusiasts are also concerned about mandatory microchiping, right now they can just deny the badly beaten dog is theirs.

This makes me so angry on so many levels. Pet owners don't always know whom to believe, and not everyone is familiar with the difference in scientific studies. Many people see all scientific studies as being equal, however, studies are far from equal, and a the design of the study is very important in showing impartiality.
Here's one of the newest studies, done by real scientists.




I hope Yorkietalkerswill not be a part of spreading rumors concerning the safety of microchips, literally millions of dogs have been microchiped, and only one case has documented as tumor involvement. I'm not familiar with the case cited above, but I don't think we should automatically believe it to be true, until independent resources confirm it. Even then, it's would be only 2 dogs out of millions, and please don't forget that COMERCIAL BREEDERS ARE FIGHTING THIS LEGISTLATION, and want to get pet owners outraged and scared, so that the legislation doesn't pass. Don't fall for the trap!

Nancy, IDK about all commercial breeders but the ones I've dealt with through rescue all microchip and have for some time. I don't think commercial breeders are too worried about dogs being traced back to them.

The microchip study summary you quoted was done by "Destron-Fearing........the maker of microchips. Call me cynical because, I just don't trust those that profit from a product to do the research. I would much prefer an unbiased opinion or scientific study.

It's odd you want an independent study before you believe the most recent case of cancer in a dog at the site of the microchip, but believe a corporation with a vested interest in the outcome of these studies.
__________________
~Ruby, Reno, Razz, & Jack~
jencar98 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-27-2010, 09:10 AM   #14
I ♥ Joey & Ralphie!
Donating Member
 
Nancy1999's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2006
Location: Arizona
Posts: 25,394
Blog Entries: 2
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by jencar98 View Post
Nancy, IDK about all commercial breeders but the ones I've dealt with through rescue all microchip and have for some time. I don't think commercial breeders are too worried about dogs being traced back to them.

The microchip study summary you quoted was done by "Destron-Fearing........the maker of microchips. Call me cynical because, I just don't trust those that profit from a product to do the research. I would much prefer an unbiased opinion or scientific study.

It's odd you want an independent study before you believe the most recent case of cancer in a dog at the site of the microchip, but believe a corporation with a vested interest in the outcome of these studies.

If you have a strong background in experimental design you can read a study and know if it's done following the rules of science, it doesn’t matter who has conducted the study, you can pick up flaws in the design. Studies published in scientific journals are picked apart if they are flawed in anyway. While one company may have conducted the studies, many independent scientists are willing to replicate it, while others change it around to see if other things can cause the effect. These studies has been done many times and replicated before the chips were even placed in animals.

I can't believe so many are willing to believe this source that has other stories such as " Read the whole story: Get "Spychips: How Major Corporations and Government plan to Track your every Move". Do you believe articles written in the National Enquirer? This is that type of publication. The web isn't always the best place to find solid information; sometimes the kookiest websites get more hits and come up first on the google hit list. Aren't any of you suspicious that no names are given of the owner or the vet?

Commercial breeders are fighting this; do you honestly believe commercial breeders are afraid their dogs will get cancer, right now they use tattooing, but it's easy to change and fades over time. Dog fighting is truly a big industry, they certainly don't want their dogs microchipped, and again, do you think it because they are concerned about cancer? So how do they go about fighting these laws, they scare the average person so that they will repeal these laws. Unfortunately, what's even more sad is that they will scare many people into not getting a chip, or even removing a chip, and these chips do help recover thousands of dogs to their owners yearly. I'm just so concerned that people are to not going understand what's truly happening here, and last time a thread like this was written one person was so afraid she wanted to have the chip removed, now that would be major surgery. Please talk to your vet if you have any concerns, vets are privy to solid science found in journals not often published on the web. Even here on YT thousands of us have used microchips, on our dogs, doesn't that tell you something about their safety?


Taken from the American Veterinary Medical Association:


Q: What are some of the problems associated with microchips? How common are they?
A: The British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) maintains a database of adverse reactions to microchips. Since the database was started in 1996, over 4 million animals have been microchipped and only 391 adverse reactions have been reported. Of these reactions, migration of the microchip from its original implantation site is the most common problem reported. Other problems, such as failure of the microchip, hair loss, infection, swelling, and tumor formation, were reported in much lower numbers. For a chart summarizing the BSAVA reports, read the AVMA's backgrounder on Microchipping of Animals. Microchipping of Animals

Q: I've heard a lot lately that microchips cause cancer. Do they?
A: There have been reports that mice and rats developed cancer associated with implanted microchips. However, the majority of these mice and rats were being used for cancer studies when the tumors were found, and the rat and mice strains used in the studies are known to be more likely to develop cancer. Tumors associated with microchips in two dogs were reported, but in at least one of these dogs the tumor could not be directly linked to the microchip itself (and may have been caused by something else). For more details on the studies, read the AVMA's backgrounder on Microchipping of Animals.

Q: I don't want my pet to get cancer. Should I have my pet's microchip removed?
A: We do not recommend that you have your pet's microchip removed, for two reasons. First, based on our review of the studies, the risk that your animal will develop cancer due to its microchip is very, very low, and is far outweighed by the improved likelihood that you will get your animal back if it becomes lost. Second, although implanting a microchip is a very simple and quick procedure, removing one is more involved and may require general anesthesia and surgery.

Q: Do the benefits of microchipping outweigh the risks? I know that you said I have a better chance of being reunited with my lost or stolen pet if it is microchipped, but I'm worried there is still a chance that the veterinary clinic or shelter won't be able to read the chip or my pet will have a reaction.
A: The benefits of microchipping animals definitely outweigh the risks. Although we can't guarantee that a shelter or veterinary clinic will always be able to read every microchip, the risk that this will happen is very low, and getting even lower. Animal shelters and veterinary clinics are very aware of the concerns about missing an implanted microchip, and take extra measures to determine if a microchip is present before a decision is made to euthanize or adopt out the animal. Universal scanners are becoming more available, and solve the challenge of detecting different microchip frequencies.

This information has been prepared as a service by the American Veterinary Medical Association Microchipping of animals FAQ
__________________

Last edited by Nancy1999; 03-27-2010 at 09:13 AM.
Nancy1999 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 03-27-2010, 03:19 PM   #15
Donating YT 1000 Club Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2006
Location: In my house :)
Posts: 5,219
Default

All I know is that I had 2 of my boys returned to me because they were microchipped and that's the only way I got them back...had they not been chipped I have no idea where they might have ended up. For me the chip is worth it...all of mine are chipped and no one has had any issues at all.
my2boyz is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Bookmarks



Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is Off
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are Off




Google
 

SHOP NOW: Amazon :: eBay :: Buy.com :: Newegg :: PetStore :: Petco :: PetSmart


All times are GMT -8. The time now is 07:51 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.9
Copyright ©2000 - 2017, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
Copyright ©2003 - 2013 YorkieTalk.com
Privacy Policy - Terms of Use

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157